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Sahelian Africa faces a persistent problem of variability in rainfall, which is the major driver of vulnerability in the region. Populations in the Sahel are among the poorest and most vulnerable to climatic variability and land degradation. They depend heavily on healthy ecosystems for rainfed agriculture, fisheries, and livestock management to sustain their livelihoods. This program is one of the contributions to the Great Green Wall Initiative. The vision of a great green wall was originally conceived by the former President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo, and was then strongly supported by the President of Senegal, Abdoulaye Wade, initially with a limited vision related to tree planting. The vision has evolved into an integrated ecosystem management approach.